The vaginal flora are the bacteria that live inside the vagina. The normal vaginal flora are dominated by various lactobacillus species. Lactobacilli help to keep the vagina healthy by producing lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and other substances that inhibit the growth of yeast and other unwanted organisms.
Bacterial vaginosis is so-named because bacteria are the cause and an associated inflammatory response is lacking. It results in an increase in thin, gray, homogeneous vaginal discharge and vaginal malodor and is caused by a change in the vaginal flora. Bacterial vaginosis is a synergistic polymicrobial infection not caused by a specific organism.
In the last few decades, bacterial vaginosis BV has become an emerging pathology; its relationship with pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory disease PIDinfertility, preterm delivery, and neonatal small for gestational age are well established. BV substantially changes vaginal microbiome and these modifications could facilitate sexually transmitted infections STIs. Several studies have reported an association between abnormal vaginal microbiota, in particular, BV and depletion of lactobacilli species, and increased risk of sexually transmitted infections STIs acquisition.
Bacterial vaginosis BV and complicated vulvovaginal candidiasis VVC are frequently occurring vaginal infections in postmenopausal women, caused by an imbalance in vaginal microflora. Postmenopausal women suffer from decreased ovarian hormones estrogen and progesterone. A normal, healthy vaginal microflora mainly comprises Lactobacillus species spp. During premenopausal period, estrogen promotes vaginal colonization by lactobacilli that metabolizing glycogen and producing lactic acid, and maintains intravaginal health by lowering the intravaginal pH level.
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Vaginal flora or vaginal microbiota are the microorganisms that colonize the vagina. The amount and type of bacteria present have significant implications for a woman's overall health. The primary colonizing bacteria of a healthy individual are of the genus Lactobacillus.
The main kind of bacteria found in the vagina is lactobacillus, which plays a key defensive role. Lactobacilli help protect against microbes of external origin such as sexually transmitted diseases or infections by bacteria in gut flora and microbes normally present in the vaginal cavity that reproduce at abnormal rates causing problems such as thrush or vaginosis. These infections can result in unpleasant symptoms including itching, irritation, burning sensations, unpleasant odours, abnormal or increased discharge or pain during intercourse.
Bacterial vaginosis is the most common cause of abnormal vaginal odor and discharge. It is caused by a change in the type of bacteria found in the vagina. Normally, bacteria belonging mostly to the Lactobacillus family live harmlessly in the vagina and produce chemicals that keep the vagina mildly acidic. In bacterial vaginosis, Lactobacillus bacteria are replaced by other types of bacteria that normally are present in smaller concentrations in the vagina.
Forty-two healthy women were randomized to receive one of three encapsulated Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 plus Lactobacillus fermentum RC probiotic dosage regimens or L. Treatment with L. Ingestion of L.
Guidelines for treating sexually transmitted diseases, which were updated by the CDC inrecommend oral metronidazole, intravaginal metronidazole gel, or intravaginal clindamycin cream for the treatment of BV. Alternative agents include oral tinidazole, oral clindamycin, and clindamycin ovules. Following publication of the CDC guidelines, secnidazole—a nitroimidazole agent with a long half-life—was approved for treatment of BV.